Some of the important facts of planting Science are summaries as below:
Jatropha curcas is a monoecious, perennial, deciduous shrub with flowers in racemes in a diachasial cyme pattern.
In the inflorescence a female flower is normally surrounded by a group of male flowers
Male to female flowers ratio .ranged from 18:2:1-30:8:1 in the first year and 9:8:1-16:2:1 in the second year
The provenances giving favorable male-female ratio should be identified for future breeding
The flowers open for a period of 8-10 days in the inflorescence. The female flowers open for 2-4 days only.
There is an increase of number of male as well as female flowers in subsequent years; particularly female flower has a more increase which is a positive trend towards productivity.
The Jatropha curcas root system formation is directly influenced b propagation method in such a way that any damage or deformation occurred in the root early growth can not be repaired and will last for all the plant cycle reducing the plant growth and yield
The plant originated from seeds sowed directly in soil develop normal root system
The plant originated from seedlings raised in appropriate size of bags or containers also develop same type of root system provided that lifting and transplantation is executed in right manner at right time
The plants originated from cuttings develop only thin roots which is unable to explore deep layers of soil and the plant expected to be less resistant to drought and easily fallen by wind
Damaged by animals in initial stage
Flowering, fruiting in 3rd year
Success depends upon
Depth of sowing
Date of sowing
Quality of seeds
Moisture in the ground
Quality of preparation of the ground
High percentage of success
Good resistance to dryness
Early flowering and fruiting
Nursery raising expenditure is extra
|Plantation of cuttings
Develop wider side roots
Enter in competition with other crop for moisture and food
Low resistance to dryness
Low resistance to diseases
Risk of insufficiency in event of large scale plantation
Success of this technique is related to
Age of the plant to which cuttings are taken
The position of cutting within the plant
The condition of ground in which cutting be planted (drainage and ventilation)
The size of cutting and number of buds it contains
It is noted that Jatropha planted by seeds (direct seeding or young seedlings) saw longer than planted by cuttings and this method is recommended for establishment of plantation
Growth in Nursery
The container volume influences the growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings
The growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings in small containers would be limited being a fast growing plant. Hence container size of 9”x6” shall be appropriate
The pruning intervenes 120 days after the transplantation in the field. It consists in cutting the final bud of the plants to support the formation of side branches and to maintain the tree on an appropriate height facilitates the gathering. This practice represents a technique of control of the culture to optimize the output
Productivity & Soils
In abundant precipitations, fertile soil may lead to early fruiting
With contribution of organic matter sandy soil give best result
The clay soil is not proper as it restrict plant growth
In the flooded ground Jatropha dies of asphyxiation
Productivity with Sustainability
The production of Jatropha curcas is a function of the ecological condition of the area, nutrients and management practices applied.
In order to optimize environmental qualities of this plant , it was essential to pay attention to the condition of production of oil, i.e. of reducing to all stages, the energy expenditure, the ecological impacts and risks due to use of fertilizers. Application of organic manures gives more output than chemical fertilizers
The capsules of Jatropha do not mature at the same time. The ripe fruits are recognized by their r yellow color. Each flower contains 3 seeds. The plants of Jatropha can still flower after having produced fruits, this second turn of flowering can carry out to another output if the conditions remain favorable
Productivity & Spacing
The spacing requirement will vary over different agro climatic regions and soil types
The per plant seed yield increase significantly with increase in spacing but per unit area it decrease with increased spacing
The optimum spacing should be 2 M X 2 M
Seed Cake as Fertilizer
In high rainfall area application of only chemical fertilizers as a nutrient source have limitations in cultivation of Jatropha. This is due to the fact that nitrogenous and potassic fertilizers like urea and MOP are prone to leaching losses in very short span of time during rainy seasons due to high solubility of such fertilizers in water.
Organic manure has the property of reducing such losses and also can give sustained supply of nutrients over a period of time.
The press cake contains some residual oil and consequently contains insecticide properties and can reduce the number of nematodes in the ground.
This is also of great significance given to the fact fruiting of Jatropha is staggered over a long period. Jatropha cake is one of such organic manure that is rich in plant essential nutrients
Over the period of time there shall be plenty of press cake which can find its way to back into the soil as manure rather than transporting it for some other purpose.
An application of 3 tons organic fertilizer mixed with press cake increase yield handsomely
The land degradation is caused by wind and water erosion leading to depletion of soil organic matter and poor soil structure stability. The Jatropha plantation improves soil structure within a short period of cultivation
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Plantation Development, C J P