What is the germination time of seed?
Is any chemical can be used for fast germination time?
- Germination needs between 5 and 7 days, depending on the ambient temperature.
- There are no chemicals, which might accelerate this process. It is not necessary. But pre-planting of Jatropha in tree nurseries is important and can accelerate the development of trees substantially.
If we plant jatropha through:
1. Directly planting through seed.
2. Planting through Cutting.
3. Planting through Sapling.
Which will give better yield?
Which will grow early and fast?
What will be difference in yield?
The best result is saplings from seeds (raised in a nursery in polybags, (about 3 - 4 months). These should be planted just before the rainy season.
- Plants from cuttings are not so resistant to drought, because they don‘t develop a taproot, which reaches far into the depth of the soil.
- If we put the seeds directly into the soil, they might be attacked by cattle (they step on them, they eat them, because the repellant is not yet developed.
What difference should be in one plant to other in respect of better yield for long time?
Row - 1Mtr. | 1Mtr. | 1Mtr. | 2Mtr. | 2.5Mtr. | 3Mtr.
Column- 1Mtr. | 2Mtr. | 3Mtr. | 2Mtr. | 2.5Mtr. | 3Mtr
- Distance between the plants of a row should be 2,5 meters, and the distance between the rows should be 3 meters.
- All 3 to 5 rows you may enlarge the distance of the rows to allow tractors to pass.
If we first develop the cutting in polybag like saplings and after certain time translate it, is its result are as good as plants precultivated from seeds
- More or less, yes. The plants from these saplings (cuttings) will develop faster and get seeds right away, but the plant itself will not develop a taproot.
- Under normal circumstances, this is not important, but in a situation of extended drought, plants with taproot (elevated from seeds) are more resistant.
If Rainfall is 500-600 MM and Temperature is Avg. 32-35 c, Highest 44 c, Lowest 3 c. with sandy soil.
What yield can be getting?
If it is with Irrigation.
If it is without Irrigation.
- 500 - 600 mm of rainfall is the limit. Below 600 mm there is more or less no more production, but this depends on the local water condition in the ground.
- Sandy soil is good. But if it is free of nutrients, even the growth of Jatropha is limited.
If we have irrigation, the limit of the yield is the fertility of the soil. So we may get the full production of about 5-kg per plant, which will be between 5 and 12.5 tons of seed per hectare.
- Interesting is the irrigation with wastewater, because of the nutrients. In the Egyptian desert they have a plantation with waste water irrigation
If seeds stored for 6 months in normal conditions.
1. Will oil content increase or decrease?
2. If yes, how much it will be?
3. Will any insect infect it?
4. If yes, please tell name of insects.
5. What is solution fot it?
- The Jatropha seeds are oily and do not store for long. Research on viability of Jatropha seeds shows a decrease due to term of storage. Seeds older than 15 months show viability below 50 % (Kobilke 1989)
- Six months storage will not effect the oil content.
- We observed small Beatles, which infected the seeds. The name of the beatles is unknown.
Solution: Try to avoid long storage. If storage is necessary, store in a dry place and in small quantities for each place. If an infection took place, these charges should be treated (oil extraction) first
Can we extract the Jatropha oil from seeds and directly used in the vehicle?
- It depends on the engine. If we have a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber, we can use the oil directly (after good filtering). If we have a modern diesel engine with direct injection, we have to modify the engine. The best is, to start the engine with diesel, then switch to plant oil (when the engine is hot), and to stop the engine by using diesel again for some few minutes.
Is It Can Be Use Direct As Fuel? With Mobile, Car, Or Other Diesel Engine Without Modify?
- Yes, Jatropha oil can be used as fuel directly in stationary diesel engines and in mobile ones (cars, trucks, busses), but you have to modify the diesel engine.
- You can also use Jatropha oil in some diesel engines with a precombustion chamber without modification (Field marshal from India).
Which Diesel Engine Is Suitable For Bio Diesel ? Precombustion Chamber Or Direct Injection.
- Bio-diesel is a chemically modified plant oil. It behaves like diesel and can be used in any diesel engine (DI or precombustion chamber) directly.
- Since bio-diesel is a strong organic solvent, it attacks joints and tubes from organic material (plastic, rubber). So you have to make sure, that your engine has bio-diesel proof joints and plastic parts.
It seen to be not possible to plant jatropha in macro scale in the case of:
2.harvest cost, and processing
3.low-yield compare with other plant.
4.biodeisel plant investing.
5.fossil crude oil price.
Do sir, any idea or chance for this future green energy?
- We don’t see any obstacles in plantation of Jatropha.
- You have to know that the harvest of the seeds is the crucial economic factor. It will take about 1 hour to pick 8 kg seeds.
- Think of a model, where farmers are growing Jatropha, harvesting the seeds and extracting the oil.
- A company is buying the oil and eventually processing it to biodiesel.